Possible ways of setting thresholds or ranges and what the certainty expressed will represent

Setting
primarily for
Degree of contextualization Threshold or range How it is set What the certainty rating represents
Systematic reviews and HTA Noncontextualized Range: 95% Confidence Interval Using existing limits of the 95% CIs, which implies precision is not routinely part of the rating Certainty that the effect lies within the confidence interval
OR ‚ 1, RR ‚ 1, HR‚ 1, RD ‚ 0 Using the threshold of null effectg Certainty that the effect of one treatment differs from another
Systematic reviews and HTA Partially contextualized Specified magnitude of effect E.g. a small effect can be defined as an effect small enough that one might consider not using the intervention if adverse effects or costs are appreciable Certainty in a specified magnitude of effect for one outcome (e.g. no or trivial, small, moderate or large effect)
Clinical practice guideline Fully contextualized Threshold determined with considerations of all critical outcomes Considering the range of possible effects on all critical outcomes, bearing in mind the decision(s) that need to be made, and the associated values and preferences For each outcome, ratings represent our confidence that the direction of the net effect (positive or negative) will not differ from one end of the certainty range to the other.

HTA: Health technology assessment
Hulcrantz M, et al. The GRADE Working Group clarifies the construct of certainty of evidence. JCE 2017